Snow ghosts 

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    ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᐊᕕᙵᖅ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᖃᓗᒃᑐᑦᓯᐊᖅ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ. ᐊᕕᙵᐊᑉ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᑕ ᐃᓱᖏᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐊᑖᓃᑦᑐᖅ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᑦ ᓯᐊᓐᓇᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑲᔫᔪᑦ. ᓴᓂᖓᓃᑦᑐᖅ ᑕᑯᓗᒍ. A northern collared lemming seen near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. The tips of the lemming’s hair are white, but the under hair is dark grey or brown. See sidebar.   Mathilde Poirier

    ᐊᐳᑎᒥᑦ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑦᓯᐊᖏᑦᑐᑦ 

    ᐊᐳᑎᑭᓗᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑎᑦᓯᓂᖅᓴᐅᕗᖅ 

    ᑖᒥᓂᒃ ᕙᑐ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᖓ

    ᐅᑲᓕᐅᕋᓗᐊᖅᑲᑦ, ᐊᕕᙵᐅᑉᐸᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ 21−ᓂᒃ ᐆᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᓕᒫᒥᑦ ᐊᒥᖏᑕ ᑕᖅᓴᖏᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᓲᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ, ᖃᑯᖅᓯᕋᐃᒻᒪᑕ ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓂᖃᓲᖅ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑦᓯᐊᓂᐊᖏᒻᒪᑕ ᐊᐳᑎᒥᑦ ᐆᒪᑦᓯᐊᓂᐊᕐᒪᑕᓗ. ᑕᐃᒫᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᖅ, ᐊᒪᕈᐃᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᖏᓐᓇᓲᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓕᒫᒥᑦ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ, ᓂᕆᔭᑦᓴᖅᓯᐅᑦᓯᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᖏᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ. 

     ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒐᓵᓗᓐᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑎᒻᒪᕆᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓄᖅ ᐱᕈᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᕐᒪᖔᑦ ᓄᑖᖑᔪᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᑦ ᐊᒥᖏᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᐆᒪᔪᓄᑦ, ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᓂᑦ ᓱᓗᓂᑦ ᐊᕿᒡᒋᓂᑦ. ᐊᑦᓱᕈᖅᓱᑎᒃ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐱᔭᕆᐊᑐᓗᐊᙱᑦᑐᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᔭᐅᓂᑰᔪᑦ ᓴᖅᑮᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓲᖅ ᐅᓪᓗ ᒪᓕᑦᓱᓂᐅᒃ (ᓯᓚ ᖃᐅᒪᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖓ) ᓂᓪᓚᓱᓐᓂᖓᓂ ᒪᓕᙱᖔᑦᓱᑎᒃ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐊᐳᑎᒥᓲᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑎᒻᒥᐊᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓄᑦ ᓅᖃᑦᑕᖏᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᑎᑐᑦ, ᓱᒃᑲᐃᑦᑐᒥᑦ “ᐊᓯᐅᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᔫᔮᓲᑦ” ᐊᐳᑎᒥᑦ… ᐆᒪᒐᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᓱᓕ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᓇᔪᖃᑦᑕᖅᑕᒥᓂᒃ. 

    ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑦᑕᐃᓕᒪᓂᖏᑦᑎᑐᑦ, ᐊᒥᖏᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᓱᓗᖏᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓕᐊᓂᖏᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐆᖅᑰᔾᔪᑕᐅᔪᒻᒪᕆᐅᓲᑦ. ᐆᑦᑑᑎᒋᓗᒍ, ᐃᔾᔪᔪᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᒃ, ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒥᖓ ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᓄᑦ ᐅᖅᑰᑎᑦᑎᓲᖅ ᐅᕕᓂᖓᑕ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ, ᓴᐳᔾᔭᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓂᓪᓚᓱᑦᑐᒥᑦ ᐊᓂᕐᓂᒥ. ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᕿᐅᓕᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᓂᓪᓚᓱᓐᓂᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ −50 ᓯᐊᓪᓯᐊᔅᒥᒃ! ᐅᐱᕐᖓᑦᓵᒥᑦ ᖃᐅᒪᑯᑖᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᑦ ᐊᒦᔭᓕᑕᐅᓐᓇᓲᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᒥᑦ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᓇᐃᓐᓂᖅᓴᒧᑦ, ᐃᔾᔪᖏᓐᓂᖅᓴᒧᑦ, ᑕᖅᓴᖃᕐᓂᖅᓴᒧᑦ ᐊᒥᕐᒧᑦ. 

    ᐆᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᓯᓲᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᑕᐅᒐᔪᓲᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ, ᐅᑲᓕᖅ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᒍᓐᓇᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᓇᐹᖅᑐᓕᓐᓂᒃ ᐆᒪᓂᖃᕐᕕᐅᔪᓂᒃ. ᐸᓯᕕᒃ ᐱᖓᓐᓇᖓᓃᑦᑐᖅ ᓯᔾᔭᖓᓂ ᓄᐊᔅ ᐊᒥᐊᓕᑲᒥᑦ, ᐅᑲᓖᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᒻᒥᔪᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᓯᓯᒪᒐᑎ. While some of the mammals that turn white in winter reside solely in the Arctic, the snowshoe hare is also found in boreal habitats. Along the Pacific coast of North America, snowshoe hares also have been seen in winter without white coats.   Canadian Museum of Nature

    ᓯᓚᐅᑉ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓ ᐊᑦᓱᕉᑕᐅᓕᖅᑐᖅ ᐆᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᓯᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ−ᑐᕌᖓᓕᕈᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ “ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑦᑕᐃᓕᒪᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᓐᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ”. ᐅᖅᑰᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᓯᕗᓕᖅᐹᒥᑦ “ᐊᐅᔾᔮᙱᑦᑐᖅ” ᐊᐱᑯᑖᕋᓱᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ, ᐊᐅᓴᕋᐃᑦᓱᓂᓗ ᐅᐱᕐᖔᑦᓴᒥᑦ, ᐊᕐᕌᒍ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐊᐳᑎᖃᙱᑯᑖᓕᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᖅ. ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐃᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓲᑦ ᐊᐳᑎᖃᙱᑦᑐᒥᑦ ᐊᕙᑎᓂᑦ, ᓂᕆᔭᐅᓴᕋᐃᓲᖑᓪᓗᑎᓗ ᓂᕆᒐᓱᐊᖅᑕᖏᓐᓄᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᓴᕋᐃᓕᖅᓱᑎᒃ. 

    ᐅᑲᓖᑦ ᑕᑯᔭᐅᓴᕋᐃᒍᓐᓇᕋᓗᐊᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᓂᕆᔭᐅᓲᖏᓐᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕈᑕᐅᕋᑖᒥᓃᑦ ᓴᖅᑮᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐅᑲᓖᑦ ᐅᔾᔨᓂᖅᓴᒥᑦ ᐊᒥᓖᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᒥᑦ, ᐊᔾᔨᒋᔭᐅᙱᒃᑲᓗᐊᖅᑲᑕ ᐊᐳᑎᒧᑦ, ᐆᒪᑯᑖᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓲᑦ ᐅᑲᓕᕐᓂᒃ ᓱᓕ ᑯᔫᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᐅᔭᖅᓯᐅᑎᒥᒃ ᐊᒥᓕᓐᓂᒃ, ᓴᐳᔾᔭᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᓂᓪᓚᓱᐊᓗᒻᒥᒃ. 

    ᑲᒪᓇᖅᑐᖃᐃ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐊᐳᑎᑎᑐᑦ−ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᓄᑖᓂᒃ ᐊᑦᓱᕉᑎᖃᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᓯᓚ ᐅᖅᑰᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐱᓗᐊᙳᐊᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᐊᓯᐊᒍᖔᖅᓯᒪᔪᒻᒪᕆᐅᓗᐃᑦ ᕼᐋᓐᓇᓚᒐᓴᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᐅᓴᓐᑎᒐᓴᓐᓄᑦ ᒥᓕᐊᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓄᑦ ᐆᒪᕋᓱᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᓂᓪᓚᓱᓐᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᕐᒥᑦ. 

    ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐆᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᖃᓄᖅ ᓱᖏᐅᑎᓂᐊᕐᒪᖔᑦᑕ ᐊᐳᑎᖃᙱᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᕈᑕᐅᓪᓚᕆᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᓕᒃ ᖃᓄᖅ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᕋᔭᕐᒪᖔᑦ ᓯᓚᐅᑉ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓᓄᑦ. 

    ᓘᑦᑖᖅ ᑖᒥᓂᒃ ᕙᑐ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑎᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐆᒪᔪᓕᕆᔨᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑕᑯᔭᒐᖃᕐᕕᖓᓂ ᐆᒪᔪᓄᑦ. ᖁᓖᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ ᐅᖓᑖᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐆᒪᓂᖃᕐᕕᖓᓂ ᐊᕕᙵᐃᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᕕᓂᑦ ᐃᓂᓂᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᖓᓂ. ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᕕᒋᓲᖏᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓱᖅᑕᐅᓲᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᓄᑦ, ᐃᐊᕐ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᓄᑦ, ᑐᑦᑕᕐᕕᐅᔪᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐴᓚ ᓯᐊᓪᕝ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᑦᓴᖓᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᒥᙶᖅᑐᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᓐᓂᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ. ᒫᓐᓇᐅᔪᖅ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᕆᔭᖓ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒌᓲᖏᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐴᓚ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓂᐅᔪᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ. 

    2021-ᒥᑦ, ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓂᐊᖅᑎᓕᕆᔩᑦ ᓴᖅᑮᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓄᑦ ᓂᐱᓲᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑎᑦᓯᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐆᒪᔪᓂᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᓯᓲᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ. ᑖᒥᓂᒃ ᕙᑐ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᑖᒃᑯᓄᖓ. ᐆᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᐊᖑᔪᑦ ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᑦ, ᑐᑦᑐᐃᑦ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑐᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᐊᕕᙵᖅ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᖅ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑲᓕᖅ. In 2021, Canada Post issued a set of stamps featuring Canadian mammals that all turn white in winter. Dominique Fauteux was the advisor for the series. The featured animals are the ermine, the Peary caribou, the northern collared lemming, the Arctic fox, and the snowshoe hare. Canada Post   2021

    Less snow leads to camouflage mismatch 

    Whether it is a snowshoe hare, a collared lemming or any of the 21 species around the world that change colour in winter, turning white helps these animals blend with the snowy environment to become less visible and increase survival. Similarly, wolves and polar bears that remain white year-round are only found in Arctic latitudes, helping them approach their prey without being seen during the cold season. 

    For many years, scientists wondered what drove the growth of new white hair in these mammals, or new white feathers in rock or willow ptarmigans. Through exhaustive, but relatively simple experiments, most evidence shows that the main cause for this seasonal molt is a variable photoperiod (changes in daylight over time) rather than temperature. Even though these snow mammals and birds don’t migrate south like many others, they also seem to slowly “disappear” in the snowy landscape…while still surviving in their northern habitats. 

    In addition to camouflage, changing fur or feathers in winter provides highly efficient insulation. For example, the highly dense, winter fur of Arctic foxes traps a lot of air next to the skin, protecting them from the ambient air. They are known to only start shivering when temperatures reach below -50˚C! In response to the increasing day length in spring, Arctic foxes then shed their dense white fur for a much shorter, and less dense, dark fur coat. 

    ᑐᑦᑐᐃᑦ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐅᔪᑦ 12-ᓂᒃ ᐆᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐊᒥᖏᑕ ᑕᖅᓴᖏᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᓲᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ. Peary caribou. This species is one of 12 mammals in Canada that undergo a change in coat colour in winter.   Canadian Museum of Nature

    Climate change is creating a new challenge for animals that typically turn white in winter—leading to “camouflage mismatch”. As temperatures rise, the first “permanent” snow takes more time to settle, and it melts faster in spring, increasing the period without snow over the year. White animals then stand out from their snowless environments, and they become easily detected by predators or their prey. 

    Although hares may become more easily detected by predators, recent studies have shown that hares with dense white winter fur, even if mismatched with snow arrival, had higher survival rates than hares that still had their brown summer fur, possibly owing to better protection against cold temperatures. 

    Perhaps it is ironic that these snow-white animals are experiencing new challenges in the face of a warming climate, especially knowing that they went through extreme adaptations hundreds-of-thousands to millions of years ago in order to survive in some of the coldest regions of the planet. 

    Watching how these species will adapt to the declining snow period may just be one of the most direct observations of how wildlife will respond to climate change. 

    Dr. Dominique Fauteux is a research scientist and mammologist with the Canadian Museum of Nature. For more than a decade, he has been researching the ecology of lemming populations at numerous field sites in Canada’s Arctic. His fieldwork is supported by Canadian North, Air Inuit, the Centre for Northern Studies, and the Polar Shelf Continental Program of Natural Resources Canada. His current research is done in collaboration with Polar Knowledge Canada. 

    ᐊᒥᖏᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᓐᓂᖏᑦ 

    ᐊᑎᓂ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ “ᑕᑯᑦᓴᐅᑦᓯᐊᖏᑦᑐᑦ” ᐆᒪᔪᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᒥᑦ ᐊᒥᑖᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓱᓕ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᓐᓂᖃᖅᑐᑦ. ᐊᕕᙵᐃᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑲᓖᑦ ᐊᒥᖏᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᔮᖅᑐᑦ ᓯᓚᑖᒍᑦ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᑕ ᐃᓱᖏᓐᓄᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐊᑖᒍᑦ ᓯᐊᕐᓇᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑲᔫᔪᑦ (ᐊᔾᔨᙳᐊᑦ ᑕᑯᒃᑭᑦ), ᐅᖅᑰᑎᑦᑎᓲᑦ ᓯᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ. 

    ᑕᐃᒫᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᐸᓗᒃ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑎᕆᐊᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᓂᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒥᓖᑦ ᐅᕕᓂᖓᓂ ᐃᓱᐊᓄᑦ. ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᐅᑲᓖᑦ ᐃᓪᓗᐊᓄᖔᕐᓕ ᐋᖅᑭᑦᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐊᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᑦ ᑖᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓱᖏᑦ ᐊᑖᒍᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ. ᓱᒻᒪᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᓐᓂᖃᕐᒪᖔᑦᑕ ᓱᓕ ᖃᐅᔨᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᙱᑦᑐᖅ! 

    Differences among hair 

    Each of these Arctic “ghost” species evolved white coats that are still morphologically different. The fur coat of lemmings and snowshoe hares may look white on the outside due to the white hair tips, but the under hair is dark grey or brown (see pictures), which may help absorb radiation of the visible spectrum from the sun. 

    In contrast, Arctic foxes or ermines have white winter hair from the base to the tip. Arctic hares have the opposite pattern with summer coats made of hair with dark tips and white under hair. Why such differences exist remain to be resolved! 

    ᐃᔾᔪᔪᒻᒪᕆᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒥᖓ, ᑕᑭᔫᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᒥᖅᑯᖏᑦ ᖃᑯᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᑎᕆᒐᓂᐊᒥᑦ ᐅᖅᑰᔾᔪᑕᐅᔪᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᒃ ᓂᓪᓚᓱᐊᓗᒻᒥᒃ. The dense winter coat, made of long white guard hair, of an Arctic fox provides highly efficient insulation to protect the animal from extreme temperatures.   Canadian Museum of Nature

    VIADominique Fauteux
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